Václav Klaus - 25 LET OD PÁDU KOMUNISMU U NÁS (Twenty-five Years from the Fall of Communism in our Countries)
Abstract: Václav Klaus, the main author of Czech/Czechoslovakia transformation, lays out his case for radical reform. He states that one prerequisite for reform was the unconditional liquidation of the communist system as a whole, the fundamental systemic change. He stresses that the transformation process had to be a mixture of constructivism and spontaneous evolution and discusses the political and economic reforms which moved swiftly and in parallel. Speed of the reform was absolutely crucial. The key to success was avoiding rent seeking and gradualism. The decisive part of the transition was the privatization of all state-owned firms and liberalization, deregulation and desubsiditation of the economy. In the last years sees the President Klaus reverse tendencies, the strengthening of nonstandard politics and growing systemic defects in economy.
Keywords: transformation, economic and political reforms, privatization, systemic defects.
JEL: P 2, P 5
Štefan Slávik - Ivana Ljudvigová - RESEARCH OF THE STRUCTURE AND NATURE OF LEADERSHIP ACTIVITIES (Výskum štruktúry a charakteru vodcovských činností)
Abstract: Leaders are mostly described in professional literature about leadership in terms of what they should be like (personality traits) as well as from the aspect of various leadership styles and types of leadership. However, very little is known about what leaders do in their everyday practice, or how they do it. Leadership should be seen more widely and be explored along the characteristics and style of leadership. We should explore how leaders manifest themselves outwards through their work, which means to explore the nature of the leadership work. The aim of the research project was to gain more knowledge about activities undertaken by leaders and via experience to answer a simple, but yet not too clearly answered question: ‟What does a leader really do?” This finding will help to reveal important activities on which best leaders focus and determine which elements are really important for leadership. The research project was managed by means of a combination of interviews conducted with 25 leaders, people in senior management positions, and a questionnaire survey.
Keywords: leadership, leader, leadership activities, followers
JEL : M 20, M 21, M 29
Eva Rievajová - Jaroslava Kováčová - Gábor Szüdi - INNOVATION AND INEQUALITY – HOW TO INCREASE INNOVATION TO COMBAT INEQUALITIES IN EUROPE? (Inovácia a nerovnosť – ako prehĺbiť inováciu v boji proti nerovnostiam v Európe?)
Abstract: Inequality is a phenomenon of rising importance across the world. One reason for this troubling pattern can be attributed to innovation and technological progress. The rapid innovation brings unforeseeable socio-economic changes with itself. The underlying motive of innovation has been generating economic value. However, looking ahead to the society in the future, it is crucial to construct a new system that enables addressing social challenges through innovation by collaborating and acting globally. Thus there is a need to find ways to foster innovation which generates social and public value.
Keywords: innovation, technological progress, inequality, growth
JEL: O 3, O 4
Oleg S. Sukharev - ECOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL EFFICIENCY: FUNCTIONS OF AGENTS’ BEHAVIO-UR (Ekologická a sociálna účinnosť: funkcie správania sa faktorov)
Abstract: The problem of social and ecological efficiency correlation is considered in the paper. The device describing “ecological” efficiency of various systems, such as macroeconomics, a firm or any system from the point of view of economic theory is worked out. It is shown how ecological efficiency and the problem of market economy regulation, external effects in particular, correlate. The author introduces correlations that allow defining ecological efficiency and ecological programs costs quantitatively. Besides, the basic idea is that modern economic theory does not consider ecological development problems as an integral condition of economic growth. The classical theoretical paradigm describing the issues of ecological and social efficiency separately demands changes including aspects of intercon-nection between these types of efficiency as shown in the paper.
Keywords: ecological efficiency, social efficiency, externality, ecological programs costs, function of health reserve and agents’ qualification
JEL: D 01, D 61, D 62, Q 57
Milan Terek - Peter Kročitý- ANALÝZA ASOCIÁCIE MEDZI NOMINÁLNYMI PREMENNÝMI V ŠTATISTICKÝCH PRIESKUMOCH (Analysis of Association between Nominal Variables in Statistical Surveys)
Abstract: The paper deals with the possibilities of analysis of the association between two nominal variables in statistical surveys. The procedure of realization of chi-square test of homogeneity is described. Then, residual analysis, concretely the possibilities of using adjusted standardized residuals in the analysis of character of association between variables, is presented. Finally, statistic chi-square and measures of strength of association – difference of proportions and odds ratio are described. The application of all described methods and tools is illustrated on the examples.
Keywords: nominal variables, association, chi-square test of homogeneity, adjusted standardized residuals, difference of proportions, odds ratio
JEL: C 46
Marcel Rešovský - Damián Pastor - POROVNANIE METÓD PRIAMEHO OHODNOCOVANIA NEHMOTNÝCH AKTÍV (Comparing Methods of Direct Valuation of Intangible Assets)
Abstract: Nowadays, more and more organizations are aware of the importance of intangible assets, and their valuation is the subject of many studies and research. This work is devoted to a group of methods of direct valuation of intangible assets whose aim is to express the value of intangible assets in monetary units. The article compares six different methods, summarizes the most important benefits, but also deficiencies that hinder their spread and successful application in practice. Comparison of methods based on selected characteristics suggests that despite some common characteristics, this group is quite diverse and studies the issue of valuation of intangible assets from several points of view.
Keywords: intangible assets, intellectual capital, knowledge assets, valuation
JEL: D 83, M 21
Ľubica Hurbánková - Analýza hrubého domáceho produktu a jeho faktorov na Slovensku podľa kla-sifikácie SK NACE (Analysis of Gross Domestic Product and its Factors in Slovakia according to SK NACE Classification)
Abstract: In this paper we deal with one of the output indicators ‒ gross domestic product. The aim of this paper is the analysis and determination of the factors influencing it. To analyse gross domestic product we use absolute deviations, growth coefficients, average absolute deviations, and average growth coefficients based on data for Slovakia according to the classification of economic activities of SKNACE in the years 2008-2013. To detect the factors we use the pyramidal model, in which the top indicator is gross domestic product and the factors are capital efficiency, capital equipment of economically active population and economically active population. The pyramidal model in the static variant is applied to data from
the year2013 and then a dynamic variant is created where years 2013 and 2008 are compared, and finally by means of the logarithmic decay are found the absolute contributions of individual factors to the total absolute change in gross domestic product.
Keywords: gross domestic product, capital efficiency, capital equipment of economically active population, economically active population, pyramidal model
JEL: C 43, E 23
Mária Kačírková - TRANSFER POZNATKOV VEDY A VÝSKUMU AKADEMICKÉHO SEKTORA V SR (Transfer of Science and Research Knowledge of the Academic Sector in the Slovak Republic)
Abstract: During the recent years there has been an increasing emphasis on the generation of commercial outcomes from academic-based research into business and social practice. At the policy level, the commercialization of academic research has been viewed as a key driver of national competitiveness, and has been consequently supported by a range of initiatives seeking to promote the links between universities, research institutes and industry. Part of the support is promoting Offices of Technology Transfer created by nearby research institu-tions and universities and dedicated to identifying research with potential commercial interest and strategies of how to exploit it on the market. The article is aimed at the commercialization of scientific outcomes particularly associated with the intellectual property rights. It monitors not only the benefits for the sake of the research institutions, universities and industry but also main barriers to technology transfer in the Slovak Republic.
Keywords: technology transfer, intelectual property rights, motivation, cooperation
JEL: O 32, O 34, O 39
Mirka Wildmannová - Ladislav Průša- FINANCOVÁNÍ SOCIÁLNÍCH SLUŽEB V ČR VE SVĚTLE LEGISLATIVY EU (The Funding of Social Services in the Czech Republic in the Light of EU Legislation)
Abstract: The Czech Republic joined the European Union in May 2004 and one of the conditions for membership was to reconcile the legal environment in the Czech Republic so that it would be in synergy with the single market of the EU. Since then, the legal environment has evolved in response to newly arising changes. In 2006, the Directive on services in the internal market was adopted, which among other things specifies the rules governing fair competition. These state aid rules limit the funding schemes that founders of organisations providing social services have available for the financing of these organisations. Attention will be paid to obstacles created by EU legislation to the schemes available for social services funding in the Czech Republic and possible discrepancy with implementing EU law making into the requirements of the Czech Republic.
Keywords: social services, subsidies from the state budget, care allowance, social services funding, public services, public support
JEL: H 53, I 39
SZABO, Ľ. a kol.: Podnikateľské rozhodovanie. (Entrepreneurial Decision Making). Bratislava: Vydavateľstvo EKONÓM, 2013. 164 s. ISBN 978-80-225-3677-6.
WIKTOR, W. Jan.: Komunikacja marketingowa. (Marketingová komunikácia). Warszawa: Wydawnictwo naukowe PWN, 2013. 376 p. ISBN 978-83-01-17390.